Flora and Fauna
Ferns: Over 120 species of fern grow in damp ravines, on moss – covered rocks and tree trunks. Ferns grow abundantly in the monsoon month of July, August and September.
Tree: The hills abound wild cherry, wild Apple, Spindle Wood, Oak, Fig, Poplar, Holly, Rhododendron, Masuri Berry, Dogwood, Horse Chestnut and hill tuna. At higher altitudes, forests are crowded with Himalayan cypress, Deodar, Blue pine, Fir and Long leafed pine.
Acacia Arabica(Babul) – This tree and other of same genus yield a gum, which is used as substitute for gum Arabic.
Egle Marmelos(Bel) – The fruit is a specific in atonic diarrhea and dysentery.
Artemisia Vulgris (Pati) – It has stomachic and tonic properties and is given in fevers.
Boenning Hausenia albiflora (Pisu-ghas) – Exported and used as a medicine for poultry.
Bauhinia Veriegata (Kachnar) – The root in decoction is useful in dyspepsia and flatulency, the flowers with sugar as gentle laxative, and the bark, flowers or root triturated in rice-water as a cataplasm to promote suppuration.
Berberis Lycium (Kingora-ki-jar) – An extract from the roots is known as rasaut. The medicinal extract is highly esteemed as a febrifuge and as a local application in eye diseases.
Bombax Malabaricum (Semal) – The gum is given in asthenic cases, the root furnishes one of the musali and is used as a stimulant and tonic and in large doses as an emetic, and the leaves are employed as an aphrodisiac and in special diseases.
Cinnamomum Tamala Tej (Bark), Tejpat (Leaves)– The bark and leaves are used as a carminative, aromatic and stimulant in coughs and dyspepsia and generally as substitute for tree cinnamon.
Aconitum Hetrophyllum Atis (Root) – It is used as a tonic, febrifuge and aphrodisiac.
The valleys of Garhwal are quite rich in wild life and are excellent grounds for the naturalist. Shielded from trigger-happy populace, animals and birds abound in the thick forests.
Animals: The cat family is abundant in these mountains and would include the Tiger, Panther, Civet cat, Leopard cat and Jungle Cat. Relatives of the domesticated dog would include the Himalayan Silver Fox and the Jackal. Various species of deer including the Musk Deer and the Barking Deer roam in the forest. Sambhar and Gural as well as the Bear and the Porcupine can also be seen. The flying mammal, the Bat too is common. Among the most adorable animals in this region are the Chipmunk, the Rhesus Monkey and the Flying Squirrel.
Birds: Over 400 varieties of birds have been recorded in the Himalayan region. The shore a forest host, the Jewel Thrush, Black headed Oriole, Black headed yellow Bulbul, Rosy Minivet, Laughing Thrush, Golden Backed Wood pecker and the Blue fly Catcher, Wintering waterfowl include the Goosander, Brahminy Duck & Green Shank, Grey headed Fishing Eagles may also be seen by the river edge. After ascending over 5000 feet, the Woodpecker, Thrush & Warbler become more common, between 8000-11000 feet, Grosbeak, Rock Thrush, Crested black Tit & red headed Laughing Thrush are a plenty.